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  • Voice over LTE (VoLTE)
    LTE is an all-IP mobile network core that is optimized for data transfer and to provide a broadband like data services. It was not designed to facilitate Circuit-Switched services (e.g. Telephony or SMS). Short-term solution the CSFB (circuit-switched-fallback) was developed so that LTE users can still have access to CS services. For a richer voice… Read More »Voice over LTE (VoLTE)
  • LTE (4G) Circuit-Switched Fallback (CSFB)
    CSFB makes circuit switched (CS) services (e.g. voice calls) in a LTE enabled networks. To receive or initiate a CS service, the subscriber or user is temporarily move to the 2G/3G network and re-attach to LTE afterwards. In the following sections we will describe or detailed the CSFB call-flow. In a LTE enabled network, the… Read More »LTE (4G) Circuit-Switched Fallback (CSFB)
  • LTE (Long-Term Evolution)
    Introduction Mobile Communications since the early 1980’s keeps on evolving from 2G, 3G, 3.5G, 4G and then recently talks about 5G is in every corner. But before we dig into the latest evolution (i.e. 5G), lets have a look first what is LTE and VoLTE. Technology advances in smartphones and mobile devices drove the evolution… Read More »LTE (Long-Term Evolution)
  • Machine Learning
    What is Machine Learning? With a bit of search I’ve noted two Machine Learning definitions: From an older definition (Arthur Samuel c.a. 1950s): He defined machine learning as the field of study that gives computers the ability to learn without being explicitly learned.  From a more recent and technical definition (Tom Mitchell): He says, a computer… Read More »Machine Learning
  • SS7 Firewall
    Introduction It may now be considered as legacy but SS7 is still the main interconnect interface to communicate between operators. Over the years, SS7 been targeted by fraudsters (e.g. identity theft, spoofing) and attacks (e.g. DoS). Every operator should make an effort to ensure that traffic passing/traversing their SS7 network is legitimate. Free from unwanted… Read More »SS7 Firewall
  • Network Transformation
    Introduction Demand for network services have been growing over the last years and continuing till today. For example, Internet of Things devices requires connection 24/7, rapid builds of smart cities, building, devices and cars. These are beyond the services delivered by traditional telecommunications providers. These service providers capitalize the growth and moving to digitalization. What… Read More »Network Transformation