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  • Introduction : GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP)
    The GPRS Tunneling Protocol includes both the GTP control plane (GTP-C) and the GTP user plane (GTP-U) providing procedures for data transfer. GTP also lists the messages and information elements used by the GTP based charging protocol GTP’, which is defined for the interface between Call Detail Record (CDR) generating functional network elements and Charging… Read More »Introduction : GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP)
  • Camel Protocol
    What is CAMEL? CAMEL is oftenly the termed as ‘Intelligent Network’ (IN), an enhancement of an existing network services that can be offered to mobile subscribers. Because mobile subscribers could not use these service provider specific IN services when roaming outside their home network, there was the need to standardize the parameters that identify an… Read More »Camel Protocol
  • Introduction : SS7 Structure
    Message Transfer Part (MTP) The message transfer part represent the transport of messages between users. The term “user” is referring to the functional units which use the transport capability of the message transfer part. Each user part compose the functions, protocols, coding of the signaling in SS7 for a specific user type. MTP transports messages… Read More »Introduction : SS7 Structure
  • Introduction : SS7 – Signaling Points Addressing
    Signaling Point Code The signaling point code is a 14-bit value that is assigned to each network node. The structure of signaling point code may consist of one, two, three or four units. Inside the system and in signaling messages the addressing is always transferred as an unstructured binary value. Network Indicator The network indicator… Read More »Introduction : SS7 – Signaling Points Addressing
  • Introduction : SS7
    Communications networks connect terminal equipment by using nodes.  The nodes have to exchange signaling information in order to control the setup of connections. The signaling link can be viewed as a tunnel which connects two exchanges and accepts and conveys all signaling information. Signaling information transfer is made possible by sending messages. A message is… Read More »Introduction : SS7